New York Hearing Doctors Kids
Growing up is quite the adventure, but with a hearing problem, it’s an adventure that’s hard to navigate no matter how courageous the spirit
Even though it’s essential to social, emotional, and cognitive development, hearing is often a sense that’s overlooked medically. Early identification and treatment of hearing loss in children can lessen the negative impacts it will have on a child’s development, giving them the opportunity to live up to their full potential socially and academically.
Categories Of Hearing Loss
Hearing loss can be measured in degrees, ranging from mild to moderately severe to profound deafness. Hearing loss in children typically falls into three main categories.
1. The most common, conductive hearing loss, is associated with conditions in the external or middle ear that block the transmission of sound. These conditions can include ear infection, fluid in the ear, impacted earwax, a perforated eardrum, a foreign object in the canal, or birth defects that alter the canal. Many of these are treatable through minor procedures or surgery.
2. Sensorineural loss, also known as “nerve deafness,” is the second type. This occurs when damage to the inner ear, or to nerve pathways from the inner ear, interfere with the brain’s ability to process sound. Most often, if a child is born with sensorineural hearing loss, it is congenital, meaning it was present at birth. It can also be caused by the use of ototoxic drugs (drugs that damage hearing) during pregnancy, a low birth weight, or treatments for a number of other medical conditions. Although there is no cure for this type of hearing loss, in most cases hearing aids and a family-centered care plan are effective treatments.
3. Mixed hearing loss is a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, and it may include damage to the outer or middle ear as well as the inner ear or auditory nerve. Treatment options are based primarily on how much of the hearing loss is correctable through surgery, drugs, or other methods. The remaining hearing loss is usually treatable with hearing aids.
Symptoms of Pediatric Hearing Loss
Hearing loss can be difficult enough for adults to detect, let alone children, who aren’t always able to articulate the source of their difficulties in life. There are a number of signs to look for if you’re concerned that your child may be suffering from a hearing loss.
Your child’s communication skills begin developing as soon as they are born. A delay in the advancement of these skills is a red flag that something is not right developmentally. Look for these signs of hearing loss:
- Not startling at loud noises
- Not recognizing your voice
- Not moving eyes in direction of sound
Difficulty with Speech Development:
- Lack of babbling
- Lack of crying for different needs
- Doesn’t vocalize excitement or displeasure
- Around 7 months to a year, hasn’t spoken one or two words
As with newborns and infants, a child’s difficulty with communication skills may be a sign of hearing impairment. As your child begins day care and/or preschool, any trouble they may have listening or communicating will become more prominent. Look for these signs of hearing loss:
- Unable to point to different body parts when asked
- Doesn’t enjoy being read to
- Doesn’t understand action words like “run” or “sit”
- Sits close to the television
Difficulty with Speech Development:
- Unable to form simple sentences
- Doesn’t ask “why?” or “what?” questions
- Can’t answer “why?” or “what?” questions
- Doesn’t use plurals or verbs
Teens today have quite a bit on their plates, and they typically aren’t educated about the possibility of loud noises permanently damaging their hearing. It is essential to protect their healthy ears, as hearing plays a critical role in their academic success, social standing, and future economic achievements. This age group is at a greater risk for high-frequency hearing loss because of lifestyle choices. Seeing their favorite artists in concert, playing music too loudly through headphones, attending loud sporting events, or hunting can all damage your child’s hearing irreparably if they’re not using proper hearing protection.
Look for these signs of hearing loss:
- Turning up the television to an excessive volume
- Saying “what?” frequently
- Only responding when eye contact is made
- Complaining of ringing in the ears or a dip in hearing ability
- Withdrawing socially
As a certified location for infant hearing evaluations, we can properly determine your child’s hearing ability, regardless of age, and determine if there is a hearing loss. As a family-centered practice, we encourage your entire family, as well as your pediatrician, to be involved in all aspects of this process.
How is hearing tested in newborns?
Before your child leaves the hospital, they’re given an otoacoustic emissions (OAE) test. When sleeping, an earphone and microphone are placed in the ear, sounds are played, and their response is measured. If the newborn does not have a hearing impairment, an echo is reflected back into the ear canal being measured by the microphone. When a baby does have a hearing loss, no echo can be measured on the OAE test. This test is generally administered twice. Please see our section about child hearing loss for more information on hearing impairment and preventive measures for all ages.
How early can a child be diagnosed with hearing loss?
Most children receive their first hearing screening shortly after birth. All states have implemented newborn hearing screenings into hospitals and birthing clinics, and most screenings happen before the parent and child are discharged. If the child does not pass the test twice, they are referred to an audiologist for further testing.
What types of hearing loss are found in children?
While the types of hearing loss in children are the same as in adults (conductive, sensorineural, and mixed), there are differences in what they are more susceptible to. For example, teens are at a greater risk for high-frequency hearing loss because of their lifestyle choices (loud concerts, music volume), while younger children may experience conductive hearing loss caused by otitis media or an ear infection. This is usually because the eustachian tube — the passage between the middle ear and the back of the throat — isn’t able to drain because of its shorter passage and horizontal setting.
What should I do if I think my child has a hearing loss?
The sooner the issue is addressed, the better the chances of successful treatment. If you believe your child has a hearing loss, please contact us for an appointment. Our practice provides family-centered treatment that focuses on thorough hearing testing, diagnosis, and follow-up appointments if necessary.
How often should children have their hearing tested?
Your baby should have a basic newborn hearing screening performed before being discharged from the hospital. If your infant has not had this yet, it is important to have your child’s hearing evaluated, preferably within the first three weeks of life. Kids who seem to have normal hearing should continue to have their hearing evaluated at regular checkups. Typically, hearing tests are scheduled at ages 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, and 18.
What are some signs that my child has hearing loss?
Children who seem inattentive may be experiencing hearing loss. Other signs:
- Infants and newborns may not startle at sounds or respond to whispers
- Speech may be delayed or unclear
- Turning up the television volume too high
- Asking “what?” often
How are earbud headphones harming my child’s (or my) hearing?
Earbuds allow us to listen to music anywhere, anytime, and for long periods of time. This is the perfect storm for hearing loss, as the decibel level (the sound pressure) and the length of listening time affect how much damage is done. Loud music destroys the fine hairs that stimulate auditory nerve fibers, which send signals to the brain to interpret sound. Sound becomes damaging at 85 decibels (the sound level of a bulldozer idling). Listen to your MP3 player at about 70% to avoid damage. Or try the 60/60 rule: Listen to your device at 60% volume for 60 minutes at a time.